IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Compounds Containing One or More Functional Groups

The rules are summarized as follows:

1. Select the longest continuous chain containing the carbon atom having functional group(s).

2. The numbering of atoms in the parent chain is done in such a way that carbon atom bearing the functional group gets the lowest number.

3. It two or more same functional groups are present, these are indicated by using di, tri, tetra as prefixed to the name of the functional group.

4. If the organic compound contains a functional group, multiple bonds, side chain, or substituents, the following order of preference must be followed:

Functional group > Double bond > Triple bond > Side chain

5. When an organic compound contains two or more functional groups, one group is regarded as the principal functional group and the other group is treated as the secondary functional group, which may be treated as substituent(s).

6. The following order of preference is used for selecting the principal functional group.

Sulphonic acids > Carboxylic acids > Acid anhydrides > Esters > Acid chlorides > Amides > Nitriles > Aldehydes > Ketones > Alcohols > Amines Imines > Ethers > Alkenes > Alkynes.

7. Different classes of functional groups including multiple bonded compounds and the suffix or prefix required to name these compounds are given in the preferential decreasing order in Table.

Classes of Functional Groups