# Properties of X – Rays

## Properties of X – Rays

X – Rays were discovered accidentally by German Scientist Rontgen in 1895. The first Nobel Prize was awarded to Rontgen in 1901. This highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation has proved radiography of metal and in medical sciences. X – Rays are basically a type of radiations. They are also sources of energy like light but are slightly different in nature. Light has lower frequency than then x – rays and while it is absorbed by the skin, x – rays have higher frequency and pass through the human body. As the radiation of x – rays pass through the body, the energy particles called photons are absorbed at different rates. This whole pattern is depicted on x – ray images.

1) X-rays are electromagnetic waves with wavelength range $$0.1\overset{0}{\mathop{A}}\,\,-\,100\overset{0}{\mathop{A}}\,$$

2) The wavelength of X-rays is very small in comparison to the wavelength of light. Hence they carry much more energy (This is the only difference between X-rays and light)

3) They travel in a straight line with speed of light and X – rays are invisible.

4) X-rays are measured in Rontgen (measure of ionization power).

5) X-rays carry no charge so they are not deflected in magnetic field and electric field.

6) $${{\lambda }_{Gama\,\,rays}}<{{\lambda }_{X\text{-}rays}}<{{\lambda }_{UV\,\,rays}}$$

7) They used in the study of crystal structure and they ionize gases

8) X-rays do not pass through heavy metals and bones.

9) They affect photographic plates.

10) Long exposure to X-rays is injurious for human body.

11) Lead is the best absorber of X-rays.

12) For X-ray photography of human body parts, BaSO4 is the best absorber.

13) They produce photoelectric effect and Compton Effect

14) X-rays are not emitted by hydrogen atom.

15) These cannot be used in Radar because they are not reflected by the target.

16) They show all the important properties of light rays like; reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization etc.