Interhalogen Compounds

Reaction between two different halogens Types: XX’, XX’3, XX’5 and XX’7 X – Halogen of larger size, more electropositive X’- Halogen of smaller size Preparation: Direct combination. Product depends on the concentrations of the reactants. Cl₂ + F₂ → 2ClF Cl₂ + 3F₂ → 2ClF₃ Properties: Covalent molecules Diamagnetic Volatile solids/liquids {except ClF which is Read more about Interhalogen Compounds[…]

Contact Process

Sulphuric Acid

Sulfuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water by contact process.  1. Contact Process: ⇒ Sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide. S (s) + O2 (g) → SO2 (g) ⇒ This is then oxidized to sulfur trioxide using oxygen in the presence of a vanadium oxide catalyst. This reaction is reversible and the formation of the sulfur trioxide is exothermic. So Read more about Sulphuric Acid[…]

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Oxides of nitrogen

Oxides of nitrogen range from N2O (oxidation state of nitrogen +1) through NO, N2O3, NO2, N2O4, N2O5 in which the oxidation state of nitrogen is +5 1. NO2– Nitrogen dioxide: ⇒ NO2 is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid. ⇒ This reddish – brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant. It absorbs light and leads to the yellow-brown Read more about Oxides of nitrogen[…]


Types of colloidal solution

Depending on dispersion medium and dispersed phase: Dispersion medium Dispersed phase Type of colloid Solid Solid Solid sol Ex: gem stones, glasses Liquid Gel Ex: cheese, butter, gelatin Gas Solid foam Ex: pumice stone Liquid Solid Sol Ex: paints, ink, blood Liquid Emulsion Ex: milk, mayonnaise, hand cream Gas Foam Ex: whipped cream, shaving cream Gas Solid Solid aerosol Ex: smoke, ice cloud, atmospheric Read more about Types of colloidal solution[…]



Surface chemistry: Deals with phenomena that occur at the surfaces or interfaces Adsorption: ⇒ Surface phenomenon ⇒ Accumulation of molecular species at the surface ⇒ Adsorbate: the substance that accumulates at the surface ⇒ Adsorbent: the material on the surface of which adsorption occurs. ⇒ Adsorption α Surface Area Desorption: The process of removing an Read more about Adsorption[…]

Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction

1. Effect of temperature on reaction rate: ⇒ As the temperature increases, the average energy of the reaction increases, hence rate of reaction increases. ⇒ As a common rule, for every 10° rise of temperature, the rate of reaction will increase by 2 (or) 3 times of initial value. ⇒ According to Arrhenius concept: η Read more about Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction[…]


Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis

These are governed by the Faraday’s laws of electrolysis First law of Electrolysis: The amount of chemical change produced is proportional to the quantity of electric charge passing through an electrolytic cell. Greater the number of moles of electrons transferred, the greater the mass of the products. W α Q (charge) Charge = (current) ✕ time W Read more about Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis[…]