Preparation of Amines

1. Reduction of nitro compounds Reactants: Nitro compounds Reagent: H2 in the presence of finely divided nickel, palladium or platinum Product: Amines Reactants: Nitro compounds Reagent: Metals in acidic medium. Reduction with iron scrap and hydrochloric acid is preferred because FeCl2 formed gets hydrolysed to release hydrochloric acid during the reaction. Thus, only a small Read more about Preparation of Amines[…]

Structure of Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids

Definition: ⇒ The particles in nucleus of a cell, responsible for heredity, are called chromosomes which are made up of proteins and nucleic acids. ⇒ Nucleic acids are long chain polymers of nucleotides, so they are also called polynucleotides. ⇒ Examples: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) & Ribonucleic acid (RNA). Chemical Composition of Nucleic Acids: ⇒ Each Read more about Nucleic Acids[…]


Types of Polymerization Reactions

1. Addition polymerization (or) chain growth polymerization: ⇒ The molecules of the same monomer or different monomers add together on a large scale to form a polymer. ⇒ The monomers used are unsaturated compounds. Eg: Alkenes, alkadienes and their derivatives. ⇒ Can take place through the formation of either free radicals or ionic species. Free Read more about Types of Polymerization Reactions[…]


Bio-degradable Polymers

Biodegradable polymers are a specific type of polymer that breaks down after its intended purpose to result in natural byproducts such as gases (CO₂, N₂), water, biomass, and inorganic salts. These polymers are found both naturally and synthetically made, and largely consist of ester, amide, and ether functional groups. Their properties and breakdown mechanism are determined by their exact structure. These polymers are often synthesized by condensation reactions, ring opening polymerization, Read more about Bio-degradable Polymers[…]

Causes of Lanthanide Contraction

Inner Transition Elements (f – block) – Lanthanoids

Lanthanides: Lanthanides consist of elements that follow lanthanum and involve the filling of 4f subshell. Electronic Configuration: [Xe] 4fn+1 5d° 6s2 or [Xe] 4fn 5d1 6s2 The general valence shell electronic configuration of lanthanides is 4f1−146s2. Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Lanthanides: Atomic and ionic radii of lanthanides decrease with an increase in atomic number. This gradual decrease is known as lanthanides contraction. Because Read more about Inner Transition Elements (f – block) – Lanthanoids[…]

Rate of Reaction

Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Rate is defined as the change in the amount of the substance or concentration of the substance with respect to time. . Let us consider a general reaction, Reactants → Products During the progress of a chemical reaction, Concentration of the reactants are decreases with time and concentration of products increases with time. The following Read more about Rate of a Chemical Reaction[…]


Interhalogen Compounds

Reaction between two different halogens Types: XX’, XX’3, XX’5 and XX’7 X – Halogen of larger size, more electropositive X’- Halogen of smaller size Preparation: Direct combination. Product depends on the concentrations of the reactants. Cl₂ + F₂ → 2ClF Cl₂ + 3F₂ → 2ClF₃ Properties: Covalent molecules Diamagnetic Volatile solids/liquids {except ClF which is Read more about Interhalogen Compounds[…]